Map Our Shared Past in the Mediterranean


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This lesson continues the study of Khayr al-Din’s life and work as a reformer begun in lessons 5.5. Khayr al-Din: Groomed for Reform and 5.2. The Case for Reform (which includes excerpts of Khayr al-Din’s greatest work The Surest Path). In…

Topic Overview  Khayr al-Din was born (c.1822) in the Caucasus, then part of the Ottoman Empire. When his father died fighting for the Ottomans, Khayr al-Din was sold into slavery, first to a prominent family in Istanbul.  His rise was remarkable;…
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